[Svrilist] SV Update: 18 06 07

Sexual Violence Research Initiative svri at mrc.ac.za
Mon Jun 18 09:47:17 SAST 2007

Dear SVRI List Members

To follow is the SVRI Update which contains a variety of sexual violence
related research and resources. Please email svri at mrc.ac.za if you would
like us to include relevant sexual violence resources and materials in
the SVRI Updates. For more information and resources on sexual violence
and the Sexual Violence Research Initiative visit www.svri.org

Today's SVRI Update includes the following:
[Summaries directly taken or adapted from source]

I.  Online Resources and Publications
II.  Websites
III.  Dissemination Research Findings:  Toolkits
IV.  Vacancies

I.  Online Resources and Publications:

Editorial: Effective HIV prevention requires gender-transformative work
with men. Dunkle K.L. & Jewkes, R. Sexually Transmitted
Infections;83:173-174, 2007:  Broad socially transformative programs
that promote gender equality and discourage perpetration of gender-based
violence and are needed to combat the global HIV pandemic.  Read more:

Violence against wives, sexual risk and sexually transmitted infection
among Bangladeshi men, Silverman JG, Decker MR, Kapur NA, Gupta J, & Raj
A,  Sexually Transmitted Infections;83:211-215, 2007:  Violence against
wives is common among Bangladeshi men. Men who perpetrate such abuse
represent increased risk regarding their wives' sexual health because
they are more likely to both participate in extramarital sexual
behaviour and contract an STI compared with non-abusive husbands. Given
the growing epidemic of HIV infection among monogamous South Asian women
based on intercourse with infected non-monogamous husbands, research and
intervention regarding men's violence in marriage and implications of
such behaviour for women's sexual health should be prioritised.  Read
more:  http://sti.bmj.com/cgi/content/abstract/83/3/211?etoc

Transactional sex with casual and main partners among young South
African men in the rural Eastern Cape: Prevalence, predictors, and
associations with gender-based violence,  Dunkle, K; Jewkes, R; Nduna,
M; Jama, N; Levin, J; Sikweyiya, Y; Koss MP, Social Science & Medicine,
In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 8 June 2007:  We explored
the prevalence and predictors of transactional sex with casual partners
and main girlfriends among 1288 men aged 15-26 from 70 villages in the
rural Eastern Cape province of South Africa. We constructed
multivariable models to identify the predictors for giving and for
getting material resources in casual and in main relationships. The most
consistent predictors of all four types of transaction were perpetration
of intimate partner violence and rape against women other than a main
partner. The strong and consistent association between perpetration of
gender-based violence and both giving and getting material goods from
female partners suggests that transactional sex in both main and casual
relationships should be viewed within a broader continuum of men's
exercise of gendered power and control. HIV prevention interventions
need to explicitly address transactional sex in the context of ideas
about masculinity, which place a high emphasis on heterosexual success
with, and control of, women.  Online link:

Sexual Assault Disclosure in Relation to Adolescent Mental Health:
Results from the National Survey of Adolescents.  Broman-Fulks JJ,
Ruggiero KJ, Hanson RF, Smith DW, Resnick HS, Kilpatrick DG, Saunders
BE. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol; 36(2): 260-6, 2007: Child sexual
assault is a risk factor for a wide range of emotional and behavioral
problems. Little is known about mental health functioning in relation to
victims' decisions to tell someone (or not) about their assault. This
study used data from a nationally representative sample of 4,023
adolescents to examine the relation between sexual assault disclosure
characteristics and mental health outcomes. Results indicated that youth
who disclosed the assault to someone within 1 month were at reduced risk
for current major depressive episode and delinquency. No relation was
found between disclosure latency and risk for posttraumatic stress
disorder (PTSD) or substance use problems. Notably, disclosure to
mothers was associated with significantly reduced risk for current PTSD
and delinquency. [Source:  SafetyLit: 18 June 2007], More details:

Dating violence, sexual assault, and suicide attempts among urban
teenagers.  Olshen E, McVeigh KH, Wunsch-Hitzig RA, Rickert VI. Arch
Pediatr Adolesc Med; 161(6): 539-45. 2007:  To evaluate the relationship
between dating violence, sexual assault, and suicide attempts among
urban adolescents. Study participants were representative
population-based sample of 8080 students, 14 years and older. Main
Exposures Dating violence in the past year and lifetime history of
sexual assault. Outcome Measure One or more suicide attempts in the past
year. In this population of urban youth, recent dating violence among
females and lifetime history of sexual assault among males were
significantly associated with suicide attempts. Clinicians and educators
should be trained to routinely screen adolescents for violence
victimization and should have a low threshold for referring these
at-risk teenagers for mental health services. [Source:  WUNRN] Abstract:

Adverse childhood experiences and prescribed psychotropic medications in
adults.  Anda RF, Brown DW, Felitti VJ, Bremner JD, Dube SR, Giles WH.
Am J Prev Med; 32(5): 389-94. 2007:  Prescription drugs are one of the
fastest growing healthcare costs in the United States. However, the
long-term influence of child abuse and related traumatic stressors on
prescriptions for psychotropic medications in adults has not been
described. This study assessed the relationship of eight adverse
childhood experiences (ACEs) to rates of prescriptions for psychotropic
medications throughout adulthood. These ACEs included: abuse (emotional,
physical, or sexual), witnessing domestic violence, growing up with
substance abusing, mentally ill, or criminal household members, and
parental separation/divorce. The study found a strong relationship of
the ACE Score to increased utilization of psychotropic medications which
underscores the contribution of childhood experience to the burden of
adult mental illness. Moreover, the huge economic costs associated with
the use of psychotropic medications provide additional incentive to
address the high prevalence and consequences of childhood traumatic
stressors.  [Source:  SafetyLit: 18 June 2007] Abstract:

An evaluation of health care providers' sexual violence screening
practices.  Littleton HL, Berenson AB, Radecki Breitkopf C. Am J Obstet
Gynecol; 196(6): 564.e1-564.e7. 2007:  OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether
health care providers (HCPs) screen women and provide them with
information about sexual violence and how women receive this
information. STUDY DESIGN: A multiethnic sample of 945 low-income women
recruited from family planning clinics responded to an anonymous survey
regarding their discussions with HCPs about sexual violence. RESULTS:
Forty-eight percent of women reported that they had been screened or
given information about sexual violence by a HCP. Only 6% of women
expressed discomfort with being screened, and more than 95% found the
information given to them by HCPs to be helpful. Latina, less educated,
and monolingual Spanish-speaking women were less likely to have been
screened or provided information. CONCLUSION: Women find discussions of
sexual violence by their HCPs to be helpful and nonintrusive.
Educational, linguistic, and cultural factors appear to affect the
likelihood that HCPs discuss sexual violence with their patients.
[Source:  SafetyLit: 18 June 2007] Abstract:

Pregnancy following partner rape: what we know and what we need to know.
McFarlane J. Trauma Violence Abuse; 8(2): 127-34, 2007: Despite more
than 30 years of research on violence against women and scores of
publications on intimate partner violence during pregnancy and
consequences for maternal and infant health, little is known about the
incidence and outcomes of pregnancies that follow partner rape. The
occurrence and consequences of partner rape and violence during
pregnancy are reviewed as well as the one study identified on the
characteristics and consequences of pregnancy following partner rape.
Literature on unintended pregnancy and violence against women is also
reviewed. Directions for future research are explored, including the
need for studies that explore women's control of their sexuality within
the context of intimate partner relationships, how and when to ask women
about partner rape, and how to include males as the solution to ending
rape. [Source:  SafetyLit: 18 June 2007] Abstract:

Health disparities and violence against women: why and how cultural and
societal influences matter.  Bent-Goodley TB. Trauma Violence Abuse;
8(2): 90-104, 2007: This article encourages readers to consider the
cultural and societal influences that impact health and health
disparities among women survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV).
Health consequences caused by IPV are widely documented and broadly
discussed. Connections between health disparities and IPV are also
discussed as related to women of color. Cultural factors and societal
influences are identified to provide the reader with greater awareness
of how these issues intersect with and impact IPV. Finally, the
implications for scientific research and practice are discussed to
include considerations for stronger assessment tools, greater
collaboration and community participation, determination of best
practices, requirement of cultural competence, mandated accountability,
encouragement of mentorship, increased funding for research, increased
advocacy, and increased culturally competent media and health promotion
campaigns. [Source:  SafetyLit: 18 June 2007] Abstract:

Barriers to working with sexual assault survivors: a qualitative study
of rape crisis center workers.  Ullman SE, Townsend SM. Violence Against
Women; 13(4): 412-43, 2007: To better understand barriers service
providers may face when advocating for survivors, a study using grounded
theory and qualitative, semistructured interviews was conducted of rape
victim advocates (N= 25) working in rape crisis centers in a large
metropolitan area. Broader societal attitudes framed and were reflected
in institutional responses to victims and in barriers faced by advocates
working with survivors. Organizational barriers noted by advocates
related to resources, environmental factors, professionalization, and
racism. Staff burnout was a major barrier affecting advocates' ability
to help survivors. Finally, the most salient direct service barrier was
secondary victimization by criminal justice and medical or mental health
systems. [Source:  SafetyLit: 18 June 2007] Abstract:

HIV/AIDS and intimate partner violence: intersecting women's health
issues in the United States.  Gielen AC, Ghandour RM, Burke JG, Mahoney
P, McDonnell KA, O'campo P. Trauma Violence Abuse; 8(2): 178-98, 2007:
This article reviews 35 U.S. studies on the intersection of HIV and
adult intimate partner violence (IPV). Most studies describe rates of
IPV among women at risk or living with HIV/AIDS and identify correlates,
using multiple types of convenience samples (e.g., women in methadone
treatment, women in shelters or clinics), cross-sectional designs, and
self-reported risk behaviors. HIV-positive women appear to experience
any IPV at rates comparable to HIV-negative women from the same
underlying populations; however, their abuse seems to be more frequent
and more severe. The authors found only four relevant interventions and
none addressed sexually transmitted HIV and partner violence risk
reduction simultaneously. There is a critical need for research on (a)
causal pathways and cumulative effects of the syndemic issues of
violence, HIV, and substance abuse and (b) interventions that target IPV
victims at risk for HIV, as well as HIV-positive women who may be
experiencing IPV. [Source:  SafetyLit: 18 June 2007] Abstract:

Preparing the next generation of physicians: medical school and
residency-based intimate partner violence curriculum and evaluation.
Hamberger LK. Trauma Violence Abuse; 8(2): 214-25. 2007:  Medical
schools and postgraduate residency programs have largely included
intimate partner violence (IPV) in their curricula. There is presently
disagreement on the optimal model for implementing such training and the
amount of time to be devoted to IPV. There is considerable overlap in
the general content and teaching methods that focus on enhancing medical
knowledge, professional attitudes, and clinical skills for asking about
and responding to patient reports of IPV. Curricular evaluations have
generally supported the idea that training increases knowledge,
attitudes, and skills. However, a number of methodological issues
preclude firm conclusions. There is a need for more randomized,
controlled studies, better quasi-experimental designs, posttraining
follow-up intervals, and demonstrations of actual clinical behavioral
competency. [Source:  SafetyLit: 18 June 2007] Abstract:

Re-victimization patterns in a national longitudinal sample of children
and youth. Finkelhor D, Ormrod RK, Turner HA. Child Abuse Neglect;
31(5): 479-502. 2007: To understand to the degree to which a broad
variety of victimizations, including child maltreatment, conventional
crime, peer, and sexual victimizations, persist for children from 1 year
to the next. Study found that children previously victimized in 1 year
are at higher risk of continued victimization, and the poly-victims are
at particular risk. These findings suggest the potential merit of
identifying these high-risk children and making them priority targets
for prevention efforts. [Source:  SafetyLit: 18 June 2007] Abstract:

A Scoping Project on Child Trafficking in the UK, CEOP, June 2007:
Through this report, the Child Exploitation and Online Protection Centre
(CEOP) aims to establish the level of existing information and
understanding of child trafficking.  The report has two distinct parts -
the first being an assessment of the degrees of awareness of the various
agencies and their ability to identify potentially trafficked children,
collect data and work with other key agencies involved in their care and
protection. Part two is an account of the case data and CEOP's
assessment of it.  This report was produced by CEOP on behalf of the
Home Office and the Border and Immigration Agency.  Online at:

Trafficking in Persons Report 2007 US Department of State, 2007:  The
Department of State is required by law to submit a Report each year to
the U.S. Congress on foreign governments' efforts to eliminate severe
forms of trafficking in persons. This Report is the seventh annual TIP
Report. It is intended to raise global awareness, to highlight efforts
of the international community, and to encourage foreign governments to
take effective actions to counter all forms of trafficking in persons.
Access full report online at:

II.  Websites

The Secretary-General's in-depth study on all forms of violence against
women:  The Secretary-General's in-depth study on all forms of violence
against women was launched in the General Assembly on 9 October 2006.
This site gives you access to the report and other relevant resources.
Website:  http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/vaw/SGstudyvaw.htm

Child Exploitation & Online Protection Centre:  Separating online child
sex abuse whether it is chat-room grooming, distribution of illegal
images or any other form of attack, cannot and should not be separated
from offline consequences. People who prey on children whether for
personal pleasure or other illegal gain do it in a way that exploits any
possible opportunity. Any response must similarly be all encompassing.
This is the principle that lies at the heart of the new Child
Exploitation and Online Protection (CEOP) Centre.  Read more:

III.  Dissemination Research Findings:  Toolkits

Disseminating research online:  This toolkit provides broad tips and
practical suggestions for communicating academic research using the
internet. It draws on best practice for web strategies from the
information and commercial worlds, especially selected to help the
successful electronic dissemination of your research.  [Source:
Research in Focus Newsletter - Issue #41, June 2007]  Read more:

Spreading the word: Disseminating research findings:  A synthesis of a
recent UK Department for International Development (DfID) funded study
providing analysis of common research dissemination strategies used and
factors that aid effective dissemination. .  [Source:  www.gdnet.org]

Dissemination pathways and indicators of impact on development: a review
of the literature: Part of the same DfID funded study intended to
provide practical guidelines for research dissemination strategies, this
paper includes checklists of questions to inform appropriate
dissemination strategies. [Source:  www.gdnet.org] More:

IV.  Vacancies:

Gender Project Manager / International Alert / London, UK / Closing
date: June 29, 2007 / Read more:  www.international-alert.org


Sexual violence is a global issue that requires coordinated
evidence-based responses.

The Sexual Violence Research Initiative, an initiative of the Global
Forum for Health Research, is hosted by the Medical Research Council,
South Africa.  The SVRI aims to promote research on sexual violence and
generate empirical data to ensure sexual violence is recognized as a
priority public health problem.  To learn more about the SVRI visit our
website www.svri.org <http://www.svri.org/>  or contact us at
svri at mrc.ac.za To unsubscribe from the list, email svri at mrc.ac.za 

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